Theory Factors_of_Int_Poly

section Getting Small Representative Polynomials via Factorization

text In this theory we import a factorization algorithm for 
  integer polynomials to turn a representing polynomial of some algebraic number into
  a list of irreducible polynomials where exactly one list element
  represents the same number. Moreover, we prove
  that the certain polynomial operations preserve irreducibility, so that
  no factorization is required.

theory Factors_of_Int_Poly
  imports
  Berlekamp_Zassenhaus.Factorize_Int_Poly
  Algebraic_Numbers_Prelim
begin

lemma degree_of_gcd: "degree (gcd q r)  0 
 degree (gcd (of_int_poly q :: 'a :: {field_char_0, field_gcd} poly) (of_int_poly r))  0"
proof -
  let ?r = "of_rat :: rat  'a"
  interpret rpoly: field_hom' ?r
    by (unfold_locales, auto simp: of_rat_add of_rat_mult)
  {
    fix p
    have "of_int_poly p = map_poly (?r o of_int) p" unfolding o_def
      by auto
    also have " = map_poly ?r (map_poly of_int p)"
      by (subst map_poly_map_poly, auto)
    finally have "of_int_poly p = map_poly ?r (map_poly of_int p)" .
  } note id = this
  show ?thesis unfolding id by (fold hom_distribs, simp add: gcd_rat_to_gcd_int)
qed

definition factors_of_int_poly :: "int poly  int poly list" where
  "factors_of_int_poly p = map (abs_int_poly o fst) (snd (factorize_int_poly p))"

lemma factors_of_int_poly_const: assumes "degree p = 0"
  shows "factors_of_int_poly p = []"
proof -
  from degree0_coeffs[OF assms] obtain a where p: "p = [: a :]" by auto
  show ?thesis unfolding p factors_of_int_poly_def
    factorize_int_poly_generic_def x_split_def
    by (cases "a = 0", auto simp add: Let_def factorize_int_last_nz_poly_def)
qed

lemma factors_of_int_poly:
  defines "rp  ipoly :: int poly  'a :: {field_gcd,field_char_0}  'a"
  assumes "factors_of_int_poly p = qs"
  shows " q. q  set qs  irreducible q  lead_coeff q > 0  degree q  degree p  degree q  0"
  "p  0  rp p x = 0  ( q  set qs. rp q x = 0)"
  "p  0  rp p x = 0  ∃! q  set qs. rp q x = 0"
  "distinct qs"
proof -
  obtain c qis where factt: "factorize_int_poly p = (c,qis)" by force
  from assms[unfolded factors_of_int_poly_def factt]
  have qs: "qs = map (abs_int_poly  fst) (snd (c, qis))" by auto
  note fact = factorize_int_poly(1)[OF factt]
  note fact_mem = factorize_int_poly(2,3)[OF factt]
  have sqf: "square_free_factorization p (c, qis)" by (rule fact(1))
  note sff = square_free_factorizationD[OF sqf]
  have sff': "p = Polynomial.smult c ((a, i) qis. a ^ Suc i)"
    unfolding sff(1) prod.distinct_set_conv_list[OF sff(5)] ..
  {
    fix q
    assume q: "q  set qs"
    then obtain r i where qi: "(r,i)  set qis" and qr: "q = abs_int_poly r" unfolding qs by auto
    from split_list[OF qi] obtain qis1 qis2 where qis: "qis = qis1 @ (r,i) # qis2" by auto
    have dvd: "r dvd p" unfolding sff' qis dvd_def
      by (intro exI[of _ "smult c (r ^ i * ((a, i)qis1 @  qis2. a ^ Suc i))"], auto)
    from fact_mem[OF qi] have r0: "r  0" by auto
    from qi factt have p: "p  0" by (cases p, auto)
    with dvd have deg: "degree r  degree p" by (metis dvd_imp_degree_le)
    with fact_mem[OF qi] r0
    show "irreducible q  lead_coeff q > 0  degree q  degree p  degree q  0"
      unfolding qr lead_coeff_abs_int_poly by auto
  } note * = this
  show "distinct qs" unfolding distinct_conv_nth
  proof (intro allI impI)
    fix i j
    assume "i < length qs" "j < length qs" and diff: "i  j"
    hence ij: "i < length qis" "j < length qis"
      and id: "qs ! i = abs_int_poly (fst (qis ! i))" "qs ! j = abs_int_poly (fst (qis ! j))" unfolding qs by auto
    obtain qi I where qi: "qis ! i = (qi, I)" by force
    obtain qj J where qj: "qis ! j = (qj, J)" by force
    from sff(5)[unfolded distinct_conv_nth, rule_format, OF ij diff] qi qj
    have diff: "(qi, I)  (qj, J)" by auto
    from ij qi qj have "(qi, I)  set qis" "(qj, J)  set qis" unfolding set_conv_nth by force+
    from sff(3)[OF this diff] sff(2) this
    have cop: "coprime qi qj" "degree qi  0" "degree qj  0" by auto
    note i = cf_pos_poly_main[of qi, unfolded smult_prod monom_0]
    note j = cf_pos_poly_main[of qj, unfolded smult_prod monom_0]
    from cop(2) i have deg: "degree (qs ! i)  0" by (auto simp: id qi)
    have cop: "coprime (qs ! i) (qs ! j)"
      unfolding id qi qj fst_conv
      apply (rule coprime_prod[of "[:sgn (lead_coeff qi):]" "[:sgn (lead_coeff qj):]"])
      using cop
      unfolding i j by (auto simp: sgn_eq_0_iff)
    show "qs ! i  qs ! j"
    proof
      assume id: "qs ! i = qs ! j"
      have "degree (gcd (qs ! i) (qs ! j)) = degree (qs ! i)"  unfolding id by simp
      also have "  0" using deg by simp
      finally show False using cop by simp
    qed
  qed
  assume p: "p  0"
  from fact(1) p have c: "c  0" using sff(1) by auto
  let ?r = "of_int :: int  'a"
  let ?rp = "map_poly ?r"
  have rp: " x p. rp p x = 0  poly (?rp p) x = 0" unfolding rp_def ..
  have "rp p x = 0  rp ((x, y)qis. x ^ Suc y) x = 0" unfolding sff'(1)
    unfolding rp hom_distribs using c by simp
  also have " = ( (q,i) set qis. poly (?rp (q ^ Suc i)) x = 0)"
    unfolding qs rp of_int_poly_hom.hom_prod_list poly_prod_list_zero_iff set_map by fastforce
  also have " = ( (q,i) set qis. poly (?rp q) x = 0)"
    unfolding of_int_poly_hom.hom_power poly_power_zero_iff by auto
  also have " = ( q  fst ` set qis. poly (?rp q) x = 0)" by force
  also have " = ( q  set qs. rp q x = 0)" unfolding rp qs snd_conv o_def bex_simps set_map
    by simp
  finally show iff: "rp p x = 0  ( q  set qs. rp q x = 0)" by auto
  assume "rp p x = 0"
  with iff obtain q where q: "q  set qs" and rtq: "rp q x = 0" by auto
  then obtain i q' where qi: "(q',i)  set qis" and qq': "q = abs_int_poly q'" unfolding qs by auto
  show "∃! q  set qs. rp q x = 0"
  proof (intro ex1I, intro conjI, rule q, rule rtq, clarify)
    fix r
    assume "r  set qs" and rtr: "rp r x = 0"
    then obtain j r' where rj: "(r',j)  set qis" and rr': "r = abs_int_poly r'" unfolding qs by auto
    from rtr rtq have rtr: "rp r' x = 0" and rtq: "rp q' x = 0"
      unfolding rp rr' qq' by auto
    from rtr rtq have "[:-x,1:] dvd ?rp q'" "[:-x,1:] dvd ?rp r'" unfolding rp
      by (auto simp: poly_eq_0_iff_dvd)
    hence "[:-x,1:] dvd gcd (?rp q') (?rp r')" by simp
    hence "gcd (?rp q') (?rp r') = 0  degree (gcd (?rp q') (?rp r'))  0"
      by (metis is_unit_gcd_iff is_unit_iff_degree is_unit_pCons_iff one_poly_eq_simps(1))
    hence "gcd q' r' = 0  degree (gcd q' r')  0"
      unfolding gcd_eq_0_iff degree_of_gcd[of q' r',symmetric] by auto
    hence "¬ coprime q' r'" by auto
    with sff(3)[OF qi rj] have "q' = r'" by auto
    thus "r = q" unfolding rr' qq' by simp
  qed
qed

lemma factors_int_poly_represents:
  fixes x :: "'a :: {field_char_0,field_gcd}"
  assumes p: "p represents x"
  shows " q  set (factors_of_int_poly p).
    q represents x  irreducible q  lead_coeff q > 0   degree q  degree p"
proof -
  from representsD[OF p] have p: "p  0" and rt: "ipoly p x = 0" by auto
  note fact = factors_of_int_poly[OF refl]
  from fact(2)[OF p, of x] rt obtain q where q: "q  set (factors_of_int_poly p)" and
    rt: "ipoly q x = 0" by auto
  from fact(1)[OF q] rt show ?thesis
    by (intro bexI[OF _ q], auto simp: represents_def irreducible_def)
qed

corollary irreducible_represents_imp_degree:
  fixes x :: "'a :: {field_char_0,field_gcd}"
  assumes "irreducible f" and "f represents x" and "g represents x"
  shows "degree f  degree g"
proof -
  from factors_of_int_poly(1)[OF refl, of _ g] factors_of_int_poly(3)[OF refl, of g x]
     assms(3) obtain h where *: "h represents x" "degree h  degree g" "irreducible h"
    by blast
  let ?af = "abs_int_poly f"
  let ?ah = "abs_int_poly h"
  from assms have af: "irreducible ?af" "?af represents x" "lead_coeff ?af > 0" by fastforce+
  from * have ah: "irreducible ?ah" "?ah represents x" "lead_coeff ?ah > 0" by fastforce+
  from algebraic_imp_represents_unique[of x] af ah have id: "?af = ?ah"
    unfolding algebraic_iff_represents by blast
  show ?thesis using arg_cong[OF id, of degree] degree h  degree g by simp
qed

lemma irreducible_preservation:
  fixes x :: "'a :: {field_char_0,field_gcd}"
  assumes irr: "irreducible p"
  and x: "p represents x"
  and y: "q represents y"
  and deg: "degree p  degree q"
  and f: " q. q represents y  (f q) represents x  degree (f q)  degree q"
  and pr: "primitive q"
  shows "irreducible q"
proof (rule ccontr)
  define pp where "pp = abs_int_poly p"
  have dp: "degree p  0" using x by (rule represents_degree)
  have dq: "degree q  0" using y by (rule represents_degree)
  from dp have p0: "p  0" by auto
  from x deg irr p0
  have irr: "irreducible pp" and x: "pp represents x" and
    deg: "degree pp  degree q" and cf_pos: "lead_coeff pp > 0"
    unfolding pp_def lead_coeff_abs_int_poly by (auto intro!: representsI)
  from x have ax: "algebraic x" unfolding algebraic_altdef_ipoly represents_def by blast
  assume "¬ ?thesis"
  from this irreducible_connect_int[of q] pr have "¬ irreducibled q" by auto
  from this dq obtain r where
    r: "degree r  0" "degree r < degree q" and "r dvd q" by auto
  then obtain rr where q: "q = r * rr" unfolding dvd_def by auto
  have "degree q = degree r + degree rr" using dq unfolding q
    by (subst degree_mult_eq, auto)
  with r have rr: "degree rr  0" "degree rr < degree q" by auto
  from representsD(2)[OF y, unfolded q hom_distribs]
  have "ipoly r y = 0  ipoly rr y = 0" by auto
  with r rr have "r represents y  rr represents y" unfolding represents_def by auto
  with r rr obtain r where r: "r represents y" "degree r < degree q" by blast
  from f[OF r(1)] deg r(2) obtain r where r: "r represents x" "degree r < degree pp" by auto
  from factors_int_poly_represents[OF r(1)] r(2) obtain r where
    r: "r represents x" "irreducible r" "lead_coeff r > 0" and deg: "degree r < degree pp" by force
  from algebraic_imp_represents_unique[OF ax] r irr cf_pos x have "r = pp" by auto
  with deg show False by auto
qed

declare irreducible_const_poly_iff [simp]

lemma poly_uminus_irreducible:
  assumes p: "irreducible (p :: int poly)" and deg: "degree p  0"
  shows "irreducible (poly_uminus p)"
proof-
  from deg_nonzero_represents[OF deg] obtain x :: complex where x: "p represents x" by auto
  from represents_uminus[OF x]
  have y: "poly_uminus p represents (- x)" .
  show ?thesis
  proof (rule irreducible_preservation[OF p x y], force)
    from deg irreducible_imp_primitive[OF p] have "primitive p" by auto
    then show "primitive (poly_uminus p)" by simp
    fix q
    assume "q represents (- x)"
    from represents_uminus[OF this] have "(poly_uminus q) represents x" by simp
    thus "(poly_uminus q) represents x  degree (poly_uminus q)  degree q" by auto
  qed
qed

lemma reflect_poly_irreducible:
  fixes x :: "'a :: {field_char_0,field_gcd}"
  assumes p: "irreducible p" and x: "p represents x" and x0: "x  0"
  shows "irreducible (reflect_poly p)"
proof -
  from represents_inverse[OF x0 x]
  have y: "(reflect_poly p) represents (inverse x)" by simp
  from x0 have ix0: "inverse x  0" by auto
  show ?thesis
  proof (rule irreducible_preservation[OF p x y])
    from x irreducible_imp_primitive[OF p]
    show "primitive (reflect_poly p)" by (auto simp: content_reflect_poly)
    fix q
    assume "q represents (inverse x)"
    from represents_inverse[OF ix0 this] have "(reflect_poly q) represents x" by simp
    with degree_reflect_poly_le
    show "(reflect_poly q) represents x  degree (reflect_poly q)  degree q" by auto
  qed (insert p, auto simp: degree_reflect_poly_le)
qed

lemma poly_add_rat_irreducible:
  assumes p: "irreducible p" and deg: "degree p  0"
  shows "irreducible (cf_pos_poly (poly_add_rat r p))"
proof -
  from deg_nonzero_represents[OF deg] obtain x :: complex where x: "p represents x" by auto
  from represents_add_rat[OF x]
  have y: "cf_pos_poly (poly_add_rat r p) represents (of_rat r + x)" by simp
  show ?thesis
  proof (rule irreducible_preservation[OF p x y], force)
    fix q
    assume "q represents (of_rat r + x)"
    from represents_add_rat[OF this, of "- r"] have "(poly_add_rat (- r) q) represents x" by (simp add: of_rat_minus)
    thus "(poly_add_rat (- r) q) represents x  degree (poly_add_rat (- r) q)  degree q" by auto
  qed (insert p, auto)
qed

lemma poly_mult_rat_irreducible:
  assumes p: "irreducible p" and deg: "degree p  0" and r: "r  0"
  shows "irreducible (cf_pos_poly (poly_mult_rat r p))"
proof -
  from deg_nonzero_represents[OF deg] obtain x :: complex where x: "p represents x" by auto
  from represents_mult_rat[OF r x]
  have y: "cf_pos_poly (poly_mult_rat r p) represents (of_rat r * x)" by simp
  show ?thesis
  proof (rule irreducible_preservation[OF p x y], force simp: r)
    fix q
    from r have r': "inverse r  0" by simp
    assume "q represents (of_rat r * x)"
    from represents_mult_rat[OF r' this] have "(poly_mult_rat (inverse r) q) represents x" using r
      by (simp add: of_rat_divide field_simps)
    thus "(poly_mult_rat (inverse r) q) represents x  degree (poly_mult_rat (inverse r) q)  degree q"
      using r by auto
  qed (insert p r, auto)
qed

interpretation coeff_lift_hom:
  factor_preserving_hom "coeff_lift :: 'a :: {comm_semiring_1,semiring_no_zero_divisors}  _"
  by (unfold_locales, auto)



end