Theory Complex_Algebraic_Numbers

(*  
    Author:      Sebastiaan Joosten 
                 René Thiemann
                 Akihisa Yamada
    License:     BSD
*)
section Complex Algebraic Numbers

text Since currently there is no immediate analog of Sturm's theorem for the complex numbers,
  we implement complex algebraic numbers via their real and imaginary part.
  
  The major algorithm in this theory is a factorization algorithm which factors a rational
  polynomial over the complex numbers. 

  For factorization of polynomials with complex algebraic coefficients, there
  is a separate AFP entry "Factor-Algebraic-Polynomial".

theory Complex_Algebraic_Numbers
imports 
  Real_Roots
  Complex_Roots_Real_Poly
  Compare_Complex
  Jordan_Normal_Form.Char_Poly  
  Berlekamp_Zassenhaus.Code_Abort_Gcd
  Interval_Arithmetic
begin

subsection Complex Roots

hide_const (open) UnivPoly.coeff
hide_const (open) Module.smult
hide_const (open) Coset.order

  
abbreviation complex_of_int_poly :: "int poly  complex poly" where
  "complex_of_int_poly  map_poly of_int"

abbreviation complex_of_rat_poly :: "rat poly  complex poly" where
  "complex_of_rat_poly  map_poly of_rat"

lemma poly_complex_to_real: "(poly (complex_of_int_poly p) (complex_of_real x) = 0)
  = (poly (real_of_int_poly p) x = 0)"
proof -
  have id: "of_int = complex_of_real o real_of_int" by auto
  interpret cr: semiring_hom complex_of_real by (unfold_locales, auto)
  show ?thesis unfolding id
    by (subst map_poly_map_poly[symmetric], force+)
qed

lemma represents_cnj: assumes "p represents x" shows "p represents (cnj x)"
proof -
  from assms have p: "p  0" and "ipoly p x = 0" by auto
  hence rt: "poly (complex_of_int_poly p) x = 0" by auto
  have "poly (complex_of_int_poly p) (cnj x) = 0"
    by (rule complex_conjugate_root[OF _ rt], subst coeffs_map_poly, auto)
  with p show ?thesis by auto
qed

definition poly_2i :: "int poly" where
  "poly_2i  [: 4, 0, 1:]"
  
lemma represents_2i: "poly_2i represents (2 * 𝗂)"
  unfolding represents_def poly_2i_def by simp

definition root_poly_Re :: "int poly  int poly" where
  "root_poly_Re p = cf_pos_poly (poly_mult_rat (inverse 2) (poly_add p p))"
  
lemma root_poly_Re_code[code]: 
  "root_poly_Re p = (let fs = coeffs (poly_add p p); k = length fs 
     in cf_pos_poly (poly_of_list (map (λ(fi, i). fi * 2 ^ i) (zip fs [0..<k]))))"
proof -
  have [simp]: "quotient_of (1 / 2) = (1,2)" by eval
  show ?thesis unfolding root_poly_Re_def poly_mult_rat_def poly_mult_rat_main_def Let_def by simp
qed
  
definition root_poly_Im :: "int poly  int poly list" where
  "root_poly_Im p = (let fs = factors_of_int_poly 
    (poly_add p (poly_uminus p))
    in remdups ((if ( f  set fs. coeff f 0 = 0) then [[:0,1:]] else [])) @ 
      [ cf_pos_poly (poly_div f poly_2i) . f  fs, coeff f 0  0])"
                          
lemma represents_root_poly:
  assumes "ipoly p x = 0" and p: "p  0"
  shows "(root_poly_Re p) represents (Re x)"
    and " q  set (root_poly_Im p). q represents (Im x)"
proof -
  let ?Rep = "root_poly_Re p"
  let ?Imp = "root_poly_Im p"
  from assms have ap: "p represents x" by auto
  from represents_cnj[OF this] have apc: "p represents (cnj x)" .
  from represents_mult_rat[OF _ represents_add[OF ap apc], of "inverse 2"]
  have "?Rep represents (1 / 2 * (x + cnj x))" unfolding root_poly_Re_def Let_def
    by (auto simp: hom_distribs)
  also have "1 / 2 * (x + cnj x) = of_real (Re x)"
    by (simp add: complex_add_cnj)
  finally have Rep: "?Rep  0" and rt: "ipoly ?Rep (complex_of_real (Re x)) = 0" unfolding represents_def by auto
  from rt[unfolded poly_complex_to_real]
  have "ipoly ?Rep (Re x) = 0" .
  with Rep show "?Rep represents (Re x)" by auto 
  let ?q = "poly_add p (poly_uminus p)"
  from represents_add[OF ap, of "poly_uminus p" "- cnj x"] represents_uminus[OF apc] 
  have apq: "?q represents (x - cnj x)" by auto
  from factors_int_poly_represents[OF this] obtain pi where pi: "pi  set (factors_of_int_poly ?q)"
    and appi: "pi represents (x - cnj x)" and irr_pi: "irreducible pi" by auto
  have id: "inverse (2 * 𝗂) * (x - cnj x) = of_real (Im x)"
    apply (cases x) by (simp add: complex_split imaginary_unit.ctr legacy_Complex_simps)
  from represents_2i have 12: "poly_2i represents (2 * 𝗂)" by simp
  have " qi  set ?Imp. qi represents (inverse (2 * 𝗂) * (x - cnj x))" 
  proof (cases "x - cnj x = 0")
    case False 
    have "poly poly_2i 0  0" unfolding poly_2i_def by auto
    from represents_div[OF appi 12 this]
      represents_irr_non_0[OF irr_pi appi False, unfolded poly_0_coeff_0] pi
    show ?thesis unfolding root_poly_Im_def Let_def by (auto intro: bexI[of _ "cf_pos_poly (poly_div pi poly_2i)"])
  next
    case True
    hence id2: "Im x = 0" by (simp add: complex_eq_iff)
    from appi[unfolded True represents_def] have "coeff pi 0 = 0" by (cases pi, auto)
    with pi have mem: "[:0,1:]  set ?Imp" unfolding root_poly_Im_def Let_def by auto
    have "[:0,1:] represents (complex_of_real (Im x))" unfolding id2 represents_def by simp
    with mem show ?thesis unfolding id by auto
  qed
  then obtain qi where qi: "qi  set ?Imp" "qi  0" and rt: "ipoly qi (complex_of_real (Im x)) = 0"
    unfolding id represents_def by auto
  from qi rt[unfolded poly_complex_to_real]
  show " qi  set ?Imp. qi represents (Im x)" by auto 
qed


definition complex_poly :: "int poly  int poly  int poly list" where
  "complex_poly re im = (let i = [:1,0,1:] 
     in factors_of_int_poly (poly_add re (poly_mult im i)))" 

lemma complex_poly: assumes re: "re represents (Re x)" 
   and im: "im represents (Im x)" 
  shows " f  set (complex_poly re im). f represents x" " f. f  set (complex_poly re im)  poly_cond f" 
proof -
  let ?p = "poly_add re (poly_mult im [:1, 0, 1:])" 
  from re have re: "re represents complex_of_real (Re x)" by simp
  from im have im: "im represents complex_of_real (Im x)" by simp
  have "[:1,0,1:] represents 𝗂" by auto
  from represents_add[OF re represents_mult[OF im this]]
  have "?p represents of_real (Re x) + complex_of_real (Im x) * 𝗂" by simp
  also have "of_real (Re x) + complex_of_real (Im x) * 𝗂 = x"
    by (metis complex_eq mult.commute)
  finally have p: "?p represents x" by auto
  have "factors_of_int_poly ?p = complex_poly re im" 
    unfolding complex_poly_def Let_def by simp
  from factors_of_int_poly(1)[OF this] factors_of_int_poly(2)[OF this, of x] p
  show " f  set (complex_poly re im). f represents x" " f. f  set (complex_poly re im)  poly_cond f" 
    unfolding represents_def by auto
qed

lemma algebraic_complex_iff: "algebraic x = (algebraic (Re x)  algebraic (Im x))" 
proof
  assume "algebraic x" 
  from this[unfolded algebraic_altdef_ipoly] obtain p where "ipoly p x = 0" "p  0" by auto
  from represents_root_poly[OF this] show "algebraic (Re x)  algebraic (Im x)" 
    unfolding represents_def algebraic_altdef_ipoly by auto
next
  assume "algebraic (Re x)  algebraic (Im x)" 
  from this[unfolded algebraic_altdef_ipoly] obtain re im where 
    "re represents (Re x)" "im represents (Im x)" by blast
  from complex_poly[OF this] show "algebraic x" 
    unfolding represents_def algebraic_altdef_ipoly by auto
qed

definition algebraic_complex :: "complex  bool" where 
  [simp]: "algebraic_complex = algebraic" 

lemma algebraic_complex_code_unfold[code_unfold]: "algebraic = algebraic_complex" by simp

lemma algebraic_complex_code[code]: 
  "algebraic_complex x = (algebraic (Re x)  algebraic (Im x))" 
  unfolding algebraic_complex_def algebraic_complex_iff ..

  
text Determine complex roots of a polynomial, 
   intended for polynomials of degree 3 or higher,
   for lower degree polynomials use @{const roots1} or @{const croots2}

hide_const (open) eq

primrec remdups_gen :: "('a  'a  bool)  'a list  'a list" where
  "remdups_gen eq [] = []"
| "remdups_gen eq (x # xs) = (if ( y  set xs. eq x y) then 
     remdups_gen eq xs else x # remdups_gen eq xs)"

  
lemma real_of_3_remdups_equal_3[simp]: "real_of_3 ` set (remdups_gen equal_3 xs) = real_of_3 ` set xs" 
  by (induct xs, auto simp: equal_3)
  
lemma distinct_remdups_equal_3: "distinct (map real_of_3 (remdups_gen equal_3 xs))"
  by (induct xs, auto, auto simp: equal_3)
  
lemma real_of_3_code [code]: "real_of_3 x = real_of (Real_Alg_Quotient x)" 
  by (transfer, auto)
    
definition "real_parts_3 p = roots_of_3 (root_poly_Re p)" 
  
definition "pos_imaginary_parts_3 p = 
  remdups_gen equal_3 (filter (λ x. sgn_3 x = 1) (concat (map roots_of_3 (root_poly_Im p))))" 

lemma real_parts_3: assumes p: "p  0" and "ipoly p x = 0" 
  shows "Re x  real_of_3 ` set (real_parts_3 p)" 
  unfolding real_parts_3_def using represents_root_poly(1)[OF assms(2,1)]
    roots_of_3(1) unfolding represents_def by auto
    
lemma distinct_real_parts_3: "distinct (map real_of_3 (real_parts_3 p))" 
  unfolding real_parts_3_def using roots_of_3(2) .

lemma pos_imaginary_parts_3: assumes p: "p  0" and "ipoly p x = 0" and "Im x > 0" 
  shows "Im x  real_of_3 ` set (pos_imaginary_parts_3 p)" 
proof -
  from represents_root_poly(2)[OF assms(2,1)] obtain q where 
    q: "q  set (root_poly_Im p)" "q represents Im x" by auto
  from roots_of_3(1)[of q] have "Im x  real_of_3 ` set (roots_of_3 q)" using q
    unfolding represents_def by auto
  then obtain i3 where i3: "i3  set (roots_of_3 q)" and id: "Im x = real_of_3 i3" by auto
  from Im x > 0 have "sgn (Im x) = 1" by simp
  hence sgn: "sgn_3 i3 = 1" unfolding id by (metis of_rat_eq_1_iff sgn_3)
  show ?thesis unfolding pos_imaginary_parts_3_def real_of_3_remdups_equal_3 id
    using sgn i3 q(1) by auto
qed
  
lemma distinct_pos_imaginary_parts_3: "distinct (map real_of_3 (pos_imaginary_parts_3 p))" 
  unfolding pos_imaginary_parts_3_def by (rule distinct_remdups_equal_3)

lemma remdups_gen_subset: "set (remdups_gen eq xs)  set xs" 
  by (induct xs, auto)
    
lemma positive_pos_imaginary_parts_3: assumes "x  set (pos_imaginary_parts_3 p)"
  shows "0 < real_of_3 x" 
proof -
  from subsetD[OF remdups_gen_subset assms[unfolded pos_imaginary_parts_3_def]]
  have "sgn_3 x = 1" by auto
  thus ?thesis using sgn_3[of x] by (simp add: sgn_1_pos)
qed
    
definition "pair_to_complex ri  case ri of (r,i)  Complex (real_of_3 r) (real_of_3 i)" 
  
fun get_itvl_2 :: "real_alg_2  real interval" where
  "get_itvl_2 (Irrational n (p,l,r)) = Interval (of_rat l) (of_rat r)" 
| "get_itvl_2 (Rational r) = (let rr = of_rat r in Interval rr rr)" 

lemma get_bounds_2: assumes "invariant_2 x"
  shows "real_of_2 x i get_itvl_2 x" 
proof (cases x)
  case (Irrational n plr)
  with assms obtain p l r where plr: "plr = (p,l,r)" by (cases plr, auto)
  from assms Irrational plr have inv1: "invariant_1 (p,l,r)" 
    and id: "real_of_2 x = real_of_1 (p,l,r)" by auto
  show ?thesis unfolding id using invariant_1D(1)[OF inv1] by (auto simp: plr Irrational)
qed (insert assms, auto simp: Let_def)

lift_definition get_itvl_3 :: "real_alg_3  real interval" is get_itvl_2 .

lemma get_itvl_3: "real_of_3 x i get_itvl_3 x" 
  by (transfer, insert get_bounds_2, auto)

fun tighten_bounds_2 :: "real_alg_2  real_alg_2" where
  "tighten_bounds_2 (Irrational n (p,l,r)) = (case tighten_poly_bounds p l r (sgn (ipoly p r))
    of (l',r',_)  Irrational n (p,l',r'))" 
| "tighten_bounds_2 (Rational r) = Rational r" 

lemma tighten_bounds_2: assumes inv: "invariant_2 x" 
  shows "real_of_2 (tighten_bounds_2 x) = real_of_2 x" "invariant_2 (tighten_bounds_2 x)" 
  "get_itvl_2 x = Interval l r 
   get_itvl_2 (tighten_bounds_2 x) = Interval l' r'  r' - l' = (r-l) / 2" 
proof (atomize(full), cases x)
  case (Irrational n plr)
  show "real_of_2 (tighten_bounds_2 x) = real_of_2 x 
       invariant_2 (tighten_bounds_2 x) 
       (get_itvl_2 x = Interval l r 
        get_itvl_2 (tighten_bounds_2 x) = Interval l' r'  r' - l' = (r - l) / 2)"
  proof -
    obtain p l r where plr: "plr = (p,l,r)" by (cases plr, auto)
    let ?tb = "tighten_poly_bounds p l r (sgn (ipoly p r))" 
    obtain l' r' sr' where tb: "?tb = (l',r',sr')" by (cases ?tb, auto)
    have id: "tighten_bounds_2 x = Irrational n (p,l',r')" unfolding Irrational plr
      using tb by auto
    from inv[unfolded Irrational plr] have inv: "invariant_1_2 (p, l, r)"
      "n = card {y. y  real_of_1 (p, l, r)  ipoly p y = 0}" by auto
    have rof: "real_of_2 x = real_of_1 (p, l, r)" 
      "real_of_2 (tighten_bounds_2 x) = real_of_1 (p, l', r')" using Irrational plr id by auto
    from inv have inv1: "invariant_1 (p, l, r)" and "poly_cond2 p" by auto
    hence rc: "∃!x. root_cond (p, l, r) x" "poly_cond2 p" by auto
    note tb' = tighten_poly_bounds[OF tb rc refl]    
    have eq: "real_of_1 (p, l, r) = real_of_1 (p, l', r')" using tb' inv1
      using invariant_1_sub_interval(2) by presburger
    from inv1 tb' have "invariant_1 (p, l', r')" by (metis invariant_1_sub_interval(1))
    hence inv2: "invariant_2 (tighten_bounds_2 x)" unfolding id using inv eq by auto
    thus ?thesis unfolding rof eq unfolding id unfolding Irrational plr 
      using tb'(1-4) arg_cong[OF tb'(5), of real_of_rat] by (auto simp: hom_distribs)
  qed
qed (auto simp: Let_def)

lift_definition tighten_bounds_3 :: "real_alg_3  real_alg_3" is tighten_bounds_2
  using tighten_bounds_2 by auto
    
lemma tighten_bounds_3:  
  "real_of_3 (tighten_bounds_3 x) = real_of_3 x"  
  "get_itvl_3 x = Interval l r 
   get_itvl_3 (tighten_bounds_3 x) = Interval l' r'  r' - l' = (r-l) / 2" 
  by (transfer, insert tighten_bounds_2, auto)+
    
partial_function (tailrec) filter_list_length 
  :: "('a  'a)  ('a  bool)  nat  'a list  'a list" where
  [code]: "filter_list_length f p n xs = (let ys = filter p xs 
     in if length ys = n then ys else
     filter_list_length f p n (map f ys))"

lemma filter_list_length: assumes "length (filter P xs) = n"
  and " i x. x  set xs  P x  p ((f ^^ i) x)" 
  and " x. x  set xs  ¬ P x   i. ¬ p ((f ^^ i) x)" 
  and g: " x. g (f x) = g x"
  and P: " x. P (f x) = P x" 
shows "map g (filter_list_length f p n xs) = map g (filter P xs)" 
proof -
  from assms(3) have " x.  i. x  set xs  ¬ P x  ¬ p ((f ^^ i) x)" 
    by auto
  from choice[OF this] obtain i where i: " x. x  set xs  ¬ P x  ¬ p ((f ^^ (i x)) x)"  
    by auto
  define m where "m = max_list (map i xs)" 
  have m: " x. x  set xs  ¬ P x   i  m. ¬ p ((f ^^ i) x)"
    using max_list[of _ "map i xs", folded m_def] i by auto
  show ?thesis using assms(1-2) m
  proof (induct m arbitrary: xs rule: less_induct)
    case (less m xs)
    define ys where "ys = filter p xs"       
    have xs_ys: "filter P xs = filter P ys" unfolding ys_def filter_filter
      by (rule filter_cong[OF refl], insert less(3)[of _ 0], auto)    
    have "filter (P  f) ys = filter P ys" using P unfolding o_def by auto
    hence id3: "filter P (map f ys) = map f (filter P ys)" unfolding filter_map by simp      
    hence id2: "map g (filter P (map f ys)) = map g (filter P ys)" by (simp add: g)
    show ?case 
    proof (cases "length ys = n")
      case True
      hence id: "filter_list_length f p n xs = ys" unfolding ys_def 
        filter_list_length.simps[of _ _ _ xs] Let_def by auto 
      show ?thesis using True unfolding id xs_ys using less(2)
        by (metis filter_id_conv length_filter_less less_le xs_ys) 
    next
      case False
      {
        assume "m = 0" 
        from less(4)[unfolded this] have Pp: "x  set xs  ¬ P x  ¬ p x" for x by auto
        with xs_ys False[folded less(2)] have False
          by (metis (mono_tags, lifting) filter_True mem_Collect_eq set_filter ys_def)
      } note m0 = this
      then obtain M where mM: "m = Suc M" by (cases m, auto)
      hence m: "M < m" by simp
      from False have id: "filter_list_length f p n xs = filter_list_length f p n (map f ys)" 
        unfolding ys_def filter_list_length.simps[of _ _ _ xs] Let_def by auto
      show ?thesis unfolding id xs_ys id2[symmetric]
      proof (rule less(1)[OF m])
        fix y
        assume "y  set (map f ys)" 
        then obtain x where x: "x  set xs" "p x" and y: "y = f x" unfolding ys_def by auto
        {
          assume "¬ P y"
          hence "¬ P x" unfolding y P .
          from less(4)[OF x(1) this] obtain i where i: "i  m" and p: "¬ p ((f ^^ i) x)" by auto
          with x obtain j where ij: "i = Suc j" by (cases i, auto)
          with i have j: "j  M" unfolding mM by auto
          have "¬ p ((f ^^ j) y)" using p unfolding ij y funpow_Suc_right by simp
          thus "i M. ¬ p ((f ^^ i) y)" using j by auto
        }
        {
          fix i
          assume "P y" 
          hence "P x" unfolding y P .
          from less(3)[OF x(1) this, of "Suc i"]
          show "p ((f ^^ i) y)" unfolding y funpow_Suc_right by simp
        }
      next
        show "length (filter P (map f ys)) = n" unfolding id3 length_map using xs_ys less(2) by auto
      qed
    qed
  qed
qed


definition complex_roots_of_int_poly3 :: "int poly  complex list" where
  "complex_roots_of_int_poly3 p  let n = degree p; 
    rrts = real_roots_of_int_poly p;
    nr = length rrts; 
    crts = map (λ r. Complex r 0) rrts
    in 
    if n = nr then crts 
    else let nr_crts = n - nr in if nr_crts = 2 then 
    let pp = real_of_int_poly p div (prod_list (map (λ x. [:-x,1:]) rrts));
        cpp = map_poly (λ r. Complex r 0) pp
      in crts @ croots2 cpp else
    let
        nr_pos_crts = nr_crts div 2;
        rxs = real_parts_3 p;
        ixs = pos_imaginary_parts_3 p;
        rts = [(rx, ix). rx <- rxs, ix <- ixs];
        crts' = map pair_to_complex 
           (filter_list_length (map_prod tighten_bounds_3 tighten_bounds_3) 
              (λ (r, i). 0 c ipoly_complex_interval p (Complex_Interval (get_itvl_3 r) (get_itvl_3 i))) nr_pos_crts rts)
    in crts @ (concat (map (λ x. [x, cnj x]) crts'))"

definition complex_roots_of_int_poly_all :: "int poly  complex list" where
  "complex_roots_of_int_poly_all p = (let n = degree p in 
    if n  3 then complex_roots_of_int_poly3 p
    else if n = 1 then [roots1 (map_poly of_int p)] else if n = 2 then croots2 (map_poly of_int p)
    else [])"

lemma in_real_itvl_get_bounds_tighten: "real_of_3 x i get_itvl_3 ((tighten_bounds_3 ^^ n) x)" 
proof (induct n arbitrary: x)
  case 0
  thus ?case using get_itvl_3[of x] by simp
next
  case (Suc n x)
  have id: "(tighten_bounds_3 ^^ (Suc n)) x = (tighten_bounds_3 ^^ n) (tighten_bounds_3 x)"
    by (metis comp_apply funpow_Suc_right)
  show ?case unfolding id tighten_bounds_3(1)[of x, symmetric] by (rule Suc)
qed


lemma sandwitch_real:
 fixes l r :: "nat  real"
 assumes la: "l  a" and ra: "r  a"
 and lm: "i. l i  m i" and mr: "i. m i  r i"
shows "m  a"
proof (rule LIMSEQ_I)
  fix e :: real
  assume "0 < e"
  hence e: "0 < e / 2" by simp  
  from LIMSEQ_D[OF la e] obtain n1 where n1: " n. n  n1  norm (l n - a) < e/2" by auto
  from LIMSEQ_D[OF ra e] obtain n2 where n2: " n. n  n2  norm (r n - a) < e/2" by auto
  show "no. nno. norm (m n - a) < e"
  proof (rule exI[of _ "max n1 n2"], intro allI impI)  
    fix n
    assume "max n1 n2  n"     
    with n1 n2 have *: "norm (l n - a) < e/2" "norm (r n - a) < e/2" by auto
    from lm[of n] mr[of n] have "norm (m n - a)  norm (l n - a) + norm (r n - a)" by simp
    with * show "norm (m n - a) < e" by auto
  qed
qed

lemma real_of_tighten_bounds_many[simp]: "real_of_3 ((tighten_bounds_3 ^^ i) x) = real_of_3 x"
  apply (induct i) using tighten_bounds_3 by auto

definition lower_3 where "lower_3 x i  interval.lower (get_itvl_3 ((tighten_bounds_3 ^^ i) x))"
definition upper_3 where "upper_3 x i  interval.upper (get_itvl_3 ((tighten_bounds_3 ^^ i) x))"

lemma interval_size_3: "upper_3 x i - lower_3 x i = (upper_3 x 0 - lower_3 x 0)/2^i"
proof (induct i)
  case (Suc i)
  have "upper_3 x (Suc i) - lower_3 x (Suc i) = (upper_3 x i - lower_3 x i) / 2"
     unfolding upper_3_def lower_3_def using tighten_bounds_3 get_itvl_3 by auto
  with Suc show ?case by auto
qed auto

lemma interval_size_3_tendsto_0: "(λi. (upper_3 x i - lower_3 x i))  0"
  by (subst interval_size_3, auto intro: LIMSEQ_divide_realpow_zero)

lemma dist_tendsto_0_imp_tendsto: "(λi. ¦f i - a¦ :: real)  0  f  a"
  using LIM_zero_cancel tendsto_rabs_zero_iff by blast

lemma upper_3_tendsto: "upper_3 x  real_of_3 x"
proof(rule dist_tendsto_0_imp_tendsto, rule sandwitch_real)
  fix i
  obtain l r where lr: "get_itvl_3 ((tighten_bounds_3 ^^ i) x) = Interval l r"
    by (metis interval.collapse)
  with get_itvl_3[of "(tighten_bounds_3 ^^ i) x"]
  show "¦(upper_3 x) i - real_of_3 x¦  (upper_3 x i - lower_3 x i)"
    unfolding upper_3_def lower_3_def by auto
qed (insert interval_size_3_tendsto_0, auto)

lemma lower_3_tendsto: "lower_3 x  real_of_3 x"
proof(rule dist_tendsto_0_imp_tendsto, rule sandwitch_real)
  fix i
  obtain l r where lr: "get_itvl_3 ((tighten_bounds_3 ^^ i) x) = Interval l r"
    by (metis interval.collapse)
  with get_itvl_3[of "(tighten_bounds_3 ^^ i) x"]
  show "¦lower_3 x i - real_of_3 x¦  (upper_3 x i - lower_3 x i)"
    unfolding upper_3_def lower_3_def by auto
qed (insert interval_size_3_tendsto_0, auto)

lemma tends_to_tight_bounds_3: "(λx. get_itvl_3 ((tighten_bounds_3 ^^ x) y)) i real_of_3 y" 
  using lower_3_tendsto[of y] upper_3_tendsto[of y] unfolding lower_3_def upper_3_def
    interval_tendsto_def o_def by auto
    
lemma complex_roots_of_int_poly3: assumes p: "p  0" and sf: "square_free p" 
  shows "set (complex_roots_of_int_poly3 p) = {x. ipoly p x = 0}" (is "?l = ?r")
    "distinct (complex_roots_of_int_poly3 p)" 
proof -
  interpret map_poly_inj_idom_hom of_real..
  define q where "q = real_of_int_poly p"
  let ?q = "map_poly complex_of_real q"
  from p have q0: "q  0" unfolding q_def by auto
  hence q: "?q  0" by auto
  define rr where "rr = real_roots_of_int_poly p"
  define rrts where "rrts = map (λr. Complex r 0) rr"
  note d = complex_roots_of_int_poly3_def[of p, unfolded Let_def, folded rr_def, folded rrts_def]
  have rr: "set rr = {x. ipoly p x = 0}" unfolding rr_def
    using real_roots_of_int_poly(1)[OF p] .
  have rrts: "set rrts = {x. poly ?q x = 0  x  }" unfolding rrts_def set_map rr q_def
    complex_of_real_def[symmetric] by (auto elim: Reals_cases)
  have dist: "distinct rr" unfolding rr_def using real_roots_of_int_poly(2) .
  from dist have dist1: "distinct rrts" unfolding rrts_def distinct_map inj_on_def by auto
  have lrr: "length rr = card {x. poly (real_of_int_poly p) x = 0}"
    unfolding rr_def using real_roots_of_int_poly[of p] p distinct_card by fastforce
  have cr: "length rr = card {x. poly ?q x = 0  x  }" unfolding lrr q_def[symmetric]
  proof -
    have "card {x. poly q x = 0}  card {x. poly (map_poly complex_of_real q) x = 0  x  }" (is "?l  ?r")
      by (rule card_inj_on_le[of of_real], insert poly_roots_finite[OF q], auto simp: inj_on_def)
    moreover have "?l  ?r"
      by (rule card_inj_on_le[of Re, OF _ _ poly_roots_finite[OF q0]], auto simp: inj_on_def elim!: Reals_cases)
    ultimately show "?l = ?r" by simp
  qed 
  have conv: " x. ipoly p x = 0  poly ?q x = 0"
    unfolding q_def by (subst map_poly_map_poly, auto simp: o_def)
  have r: "?r = {x. poly ?q x = 0}" unfolding conv ..
  have "?l = {x. ipoly p x = 0}  distinct (complex_roots_of_int_poly3 p)" 
  proof (cases "degree p = length rr")
    case False note oFalse = this
    show ?thesis
    proof (cases "degree p - length rr = 2")
      case False
      let ?nr = "(degree p - length rr) div 2" 
      define cpxI where "cpxI = pos_imaginary_parts_3 p" 
      define cpxR where "cpxR = real_parts_3 p" 
      let ?rts = "[(rx,ix). rx <- cpxR, ix <- cpxI]" 
      define cpx where "cpx = map pair_to_complex (filter (λ c. ipoly p (pair_to_complex c) = 0) 
         ?rts)"
      let ?LL = "cpx @ map cnj cpx" 
      let ?LL' = "concat (map (λ x. [x,cnj x]) cpx)" 
      let ?ll = "rrts @ ?LL" 
      let ?ll' = "rrts @ ?LL'" 
      have cpx: "set cpx  ?r" unfolding cpx_def by auto
      have ccpx: "cnj ` set cpx  ?r" using cpx unfolding r 
        by (auto intro!: complex_conjugate_root[of ?q] simp: Reals_def) 
      have "set ?ll  ?r" using rrts cpx ccpx unfolding r by auto
      moreover
      {
        fix x :: complex
        assume rt: "ipoly p x = 0"
        {
          fix x 
          assume rt: "ipoly p x = 0"
            and gt: "Im x > 0"
          define rx where "rx = Re x"
          let ?x = "Complex rx (Im x)"
          have x: "x = ?x" by (cases x, auto simp: rx_def)
          from rt x have rt': "ipoly p ?x = 0" by auto
          from real_parts_3[OF p rt, folded rx_def] pos_imaginary_parts_3[OF p rt gt] rt'
          have "?x  set cpx" unfolding cpx_def cpxI_def cpxR_def 
            by (force simp: pair_to_complex_def[abs_def])
          hence "x  set cpx" using x by simp
        } note gt = this
        have cases: "Im x = 0  Im x > 0  Im x < 0" by auto
        from rt have rt': "ipoly p (cnj x) = 0" unfolding conv 
          by (intro complex_conjugate_root[of ?q x], auto simp: Reals_def)
        {
          assume "Im x > 0"
          from gt[OF rt this] have "x  set ?ll" by auto
        }
        moreover
        {
          assume "Im x < 0"
          hence "Im (cnj x) > 0" by simp
          from gt[OF rt' this] have "cnj (cnj x)  set ?ll" unfolding set_append set_map by blast
          hence "x  set ?ll" by simp
        }
        moreover
        {
          assume "Im x = 0"
          hence "x  " using complex_is_Real_iff by blast
          with rt rrts have "x  set ?ll" unfolding conv by auto
        }
        ultimately have "x  set ?ll" using cases by blast
      }
      ultimately have lr: "set ?ll = {x. ipoly p x = 0}" by blast 
      let ?rr = "map real_of_3 cpxR" 
      let ?pi = "map real_of_3 cpxI" 
      have dist2: "distinct ?rr" unfolding cpxR_def by (rule distinct_real_parts_3)
      have dist3: "distinct ?pi" unfolding cpxI_def by (rule distinct_pos_imaginary_parts_3)
      have idd: "concat (map (map pair_to_complex) (map (λrx. map (Pair rx) cpxI) cpxR))
        = concat (map (λr. map (λ i. Complex (real_of_3 r) (real_of_3 i)) cpxI) cpxR)" 
        unfolding pair_to_complex_def by (auto simp: o_def)
      have dist4: "distinct cpx" unfolding cpx_def 
      proof (rule distinct_map_filter, unfold map_concat idd, unfold distinct_conv_nth, intro allI impI, goal_cases) 
        case (1 i j)
        from nth_concat_diff[OF 1, unfolded length_map] dist2[unfolded distinct_conv_nth]
         dist3[unfolded distinct_conv_nth] show ?case by auto
      qed
      have dist5: "distinct (map cnj cpx)" using dist4 unfolding distinct_map by (auto simp: inj_on_def)
      {
        fix x :: complex
        have rrts: "x  set rrts  Im x = 0" unfolding rrts_def by auto
        have cpx: " x. x  set cpx  Im x > 0" unfolding cpx_def cpxI_def
          by (auto simp: pair_to_complex_def[abs_def] positive_pos_imaginary_parts_3)
        have cpx': "x  cnj ` set cpx  sgn (Im x) = -1" using cpx by auto
        have "x  set rrts  set cpx  set rrts  cnj ` set cpx  set cpx  cnj ` set cpx" 
          using rrts cpx[of x] cpx' by auto
      } note dist6 = this
      have dist: "distinct ?ll" 
        unfolding distinct_append using dist6 by (auto simp: dist1 dist4 dist5)
      let ?p = "complex_of_int_poly p" 
      have pp: "?p  0" using p by auto
      from p square_free_of_int_poly[OF sf] square_free_rsquarefree
      have rsf:"rsquarefree ?p" by auto
      from dist lr have "length ?ll = card {x. poly ?p x = 0}"
        by (metis distinct_card)
      also have " = degree p" 
        using rsf unfolding rsquarefree_card_degree[OF pp] by simp
      finally have deg_len: "degree p = length ?ll" by simp
      let ?P = "λ c.  ipoly p (pair_to_complex c) = 0" 
      let ?itvl = "λ r i. ipoly_complex_interval p (Complex_Interval (get_itvl_3 r) (get_itvl_3 i))" 
      let ?itv = "λ (r,i). ?itvl r i" 
      let ?p = "(λ (r,i). 0 c (?itvl r i))" 
      let ?tb = tighten_bounds_3  
      let ?f = "map_prod ?tb ?tb" 
      have filter: "map pair_to_complex (filter_list_length ?f ?p ?nr ?rts) = map pair_to_complex (filter ?P ?rts)" 
      proof (rule filter_list_length)
        have "length (filter ?P ?rts) = length cpx" 
          unfolding cpx_def by simp
        also have " = ?nr" unfolding deg_len by (simp add: rrts_def)
        finally show "length (filter ?P ?rts) = ?nr" by auto
      next
        fix n x
        assume x: "?P x" 
        obtain r i where xri: "x = (r,i)" by force
        have id: "(?f ^^ n) x = ((?tb ^^ n) r, (?tb ^^ n) i)" unfolding xri
          by (induct n, auto)
        have px: "pair_to_complex x = Complex (real_of_3 r) (real_of_3 i)" 
          unfolding xri pair_to_complex_def by auto
        show "?p ((?f ^^ n) x)"
          unfolding id split 
          by (rule ipoly_complex_interval[of "pair_to_complex x" _ p, unfolded x], unfold px,
            auto simp: in_complex_interval_def in_real_itvl_get_bounds_tighten)
      next
        fix x
        assume x: "x  set ?rts" "¬ ?P x"
        let ?x = "pair_to_complex x" 
        obtain r i where xri: "x = (r,i)" by force
        have id: "(?f ^^ n) x = ((?tb ^^ n) r, (?tb ^^ n) i)" for n unfolding xri
          by (induct n, auto)
        have px: "?x = Complex (real_of_3 r) (real_of_3 i)" 
          unfolding xri pair_to_complex_def by auto
        have cvg: "(λ n. ?itv ((?f ^^ n) x)) c ipoly p ?x" 
          unfolding id split px
        proof (rule ipoly_complex_interval_tendsto)
          show "(λia. Complex_Interval (get_itvl_3 ((?tb ^^ ia) r)) (get_itvl_3 ((?tb ^^ ia) i))) c
            Complex (real_of_3 r) (real_of_3 i)" 
            unfolding complex_interval_tendsto_def by (simp add: tends_to_tight_bounds_3 o_def)
        qed
        from complex_interval_tendsto_neq[OF this x(2)]
        show " i. ¬ ?p ((?f ^^ i) x)" unfolding id by auto
      next
        show "pair_to_complex (?f x) = pair_to_complex x" for x
          by (cases x, auto simp: pair_to_complex_def tighten_bounds_3(1))
      next
        show "?P (?f x) = ?P x" for x 
          by (cases x, auto simp: pair_to_complex_def tighten_bounds_3(1)) 
      qed
      have l: "complex_roots_of_int_poly3 p = ?ll'" 
        unfolding d filter cpx_def[symmetric] cpxI_def[symmetric] cpxR_def[symmetric] using False oFalse
        by auto   
      have "distinct ?ll' = (distinct rrts  distinct ?LL'  set rrts  set ?LL' = {})" 
        unfolding distinct_append ..
      also have "set ?LL' = set ?LL" by auto
      also have "distinct ?LL' = distinct ?LL" by (induct cpx, auto)
      finally have "distinct ?ll' = distinct ?ll" unfolding distinct_append by auto
      with dist have "distinct ?ll'" by auto
      with lr l show ?thesis by auto
    next
      case True
      let ?cr = "map_poly of_real :: real poly  complex poly"
      define pp where "pp = complex_of_int_poly p"
      have id: "pp = map_poly of_real q" unfolding q_def pp_def
        by (subst map_poly_map_poly, auto simp: o_def)
      let ?rts = "map (λ x. [:-x,1:]) rr"
      define rts where "rts = prod_list ?rts"
      let ?c2 = "?cr (q div rts)"
      have pq: " x. ipoly p x = 0  poly q x = 0" unfolding q_def by simp
      from True have 2: "degree q - card {x. poly q x = 0} = 2" unfolding pq[symmetric] lrr
        unfolding q_def by simp
      from True have id: "degree p = length rr  False" 
        "degree p - length rr = 2  True" by auto
      have l: "?l = of_real ` {x. poly q x = 0}  set (croots2 ?c2)"
        unfolding d rts_def id if_False if_True set_append rrts Reals_def
        by (fold complex_of_real_def q_def, auto)
      from dist
      have len_rr: "length rr = card {x. poly q x = 0}" unfolding rr[unfolded pq, symmetric] 
        by (simp add: distinct_card)
      have rr': " r. r  set rr  poly q r = 0" using rr unfolding q_def by simp
      with dist have "q = q div prod_list ?rts * prod_list ?rts"
      proof (induct rr arbitrary: q)
        case (Cons r rr q)
        note dist = Cons(2)
        let ?p = "q div [:-r,1:]"
        from Cons.prems(2) have "poly q r = 0" by simp
        hence "[:-r,1:] dvd q" using poly_eq_0_iff_dvd by blast
        from dvd_mult_div_cancel[OF this]
        have "q = ?p * [:-r,1:]" by simp
        moreover have "?p = ?p div (xrr. [:- x, 1:]) * (xrr. [:- x, 1:])"
        proof (rule Cons.hyps)
          show "distinct rr" using dist by auto
          fix s
          assume "s  set rr"
          with dist Cons(3) have "s  r" "poly q s = 0" by auto
          hence "poly (?p * [:- 1 * r, 1:]) s = 0" using calculation by force
          thus "poly ?p s = 0" by (simp add: s  r)
        qed
        ultimately have q: "q = ?p div (xrr. [:- x, 1:]) * (xrr. [:- x, 1:]) * [:-r,1:]"
          by auto
        also have " = (?p div (xrr. [:- x, 1:])) * (xr # rr. [:- x, 1:])"
          unfolding mult.assoc by simp
        also have "?p div (xrr. [:- x, 1:]) = q div (xr # rr. [:- x, 1:])"
          unfolding poly_div_mult_right[symmetric] by simp
        finally show ?case .
      qed simp
      hence q_div: "q = q div rts * rts" unfolding rts_def .
      from q_div q0 have "q div rts  0" "rts  0" by auto
      from degree_mult_eq[OF this] have "degree q = degree (q div rts) + degree rts"
        using q_div by simp
      also have "degree rts = length rr" unfolding rts_def by (rule degree_linear_factors)
      also have " = card {x. poly q x = 0}" unfolding len_rr by simp
      finally have deg2: "degree ?c2 = 2" using 2 by simp
      note croots2 = croots2[OF deg2, symmetric]
      have "?q = ?cr (q div rts * rts)" using q_div by simp
      also have " = ?cr rts * ?c2" unfolding hom_distribs by simp
      finally have q_prod: "?q = ?cr rts * ?c2" .
      from croots2 l
      have l: "?l = of_real ` {x. poly q x = 0}  {x. poly ?c2 x = 0}" by simp
      from r[unfolded q_prod]
      have r: "?r = {x. poly (?cr rts) x = 0}  {x. poly ?c2 x = 0}" by auto
      also have "?cr rts = (xrr. ?cr [:- x, 1:])" by (simp add: rts_def o_def of_real_poly_hom.hom_prod_list)
      also have "{x. poly  x = 0} = of_real ` set rr" 
        unfolding poly_prod_list_zero_iff by auto
      also have "set rr = {x. poly q x = 0}" unfolding rr q_def by simp
      finally have lr: "?l = ?r" unfolding l by simp
      show ?thesis 
      proof (intro conjI[OF lr])
        from sf have sf: "square_free q" unfolding q_def by (rule square_free_of_int_poly)
        {
          interpret field_hom_0' complex_of_real ..
          from sf have "square_free ?q" unfolding square_free_map_poly .
        } note sf = this
        have l: "complex_roots_of_int_poly3 p = rrts @ croots2 ?c2" 
          unfolding d rts_def id if_False if_True set_append rrts q_def complex_of_real_def by auto
        have dist2: "distinct (croots2 ?c2)" unfolding croots2_def Let_def by auto        
        {
          fix x
          assume x: "x  set (croots2 ?c2)" "x  set rrts" 
          from x(1)[unfolded croots2] have x1: "poly ?c2 x = 0" by auto
          from x(2) have x2: "poly (?cr rts) x = 0" 
            unfolding rrts_def rts_def complex_of_real_def[symmetric]
            by (auto simp: poly_prod_list_zero_iff o_def) 
          from square_free_multD(1)[OF sf[unfolded q_prod], of "[: -x, 1:]"]
            x1 x2 have False unfolding poly_eq_0_iff_dvd by auto 
        } note dist3 = this
        show "distinct (complex_roots_of_int_poly3 p)" unfolding l distinct_append
          by (intro conjI dist1 dist2, insert dist3, auto)
      qed
    qed
  next
    case True
    have "card {x. poly ?q x = 0}  degree ?q" by (rule poly_roots_degree[OF q])
    also have " = degree p" unfolding q_def by simp
    also have " = card {x. poly ?q x = 0  x  }" using True cr by simp
    finally have le: "card {x. poly ?q x = 0}  card {x. poly ?q x = 0  x  }" by auto
    have "{x. poly ?q x = 0  x  } = {x. poly ?q x = 0}"
      by (rule card_seteq[OF _ _ le], insert poly_roots_finite[OF q], auto)
    with True rrts dist1 show ?thesis unfolding r d by auto
  qed
  thus "distinct (complex_roots_of_int_poly3 p)" "?l = ?r" by auto
qed

lemma complex_roots_of_int_poly_all: assumes sf: "degree p  3  square_free p" 
  shows "p  0  set (complex_roots_of_int_poly_all p) = {x. ipoly p x = 0}" (is "_  set ?l = ?r")
    and "distinct (complex_roots_of_int_poly_all p)" 
proof -
  note d = complex_roots_of_int_poly_all_def Let_def
  have "(p  0  set ?l = ?r)  (distinct (complex_roots_of_int_poly_all p))" 
  proof (cases "degree p  3")
    case True
    hence p: "p  0" by auto
    from True complex_roots_of_int_poly3[OF p] sf show ?thesis unfolding d by auto
  next
    case False
    let ?p = "map_poly (of_int :: int  complex) p"
    have deg: "degree ?p = degree p" 
      by (simp add: degree_map_poly)
    show ?thesis
    proof (cases "degree p = 1")
      case True
      hence l: "?l = [roots1 ?p]" unfolding d by auto
      from True have "degree ?p = 1" unfolding deg by auto
      from roots1[OF this] show ?thesis unfolding l roots1_def by auto
    next
      case False
      show ?thesis 
      proof (cases "degree p = 2")
        case True
        hence l: "?l = croots2 ?p" unfolding d by auto
        from True have "degree ?p = 2" unfolding deg by auto
        from croots2[OF this] show ?thesis unfolding l by (simp add: croots2_def Let_def)
      next
        case False
        with degree p  1 degree p  2 ¬ (degree p  3) have True: "degree p = 0" by auto
        hence l: "?l = []" unfolding d by auto
        from True have "degree ?p = 0" unfolding deg by auto
        from roots0[OF _ this] show ?thesis unfolding l by simp
      qed
    qed
  qed
  thus "p  0  set ?l = ?r" "distinct (complex_roots_of_int_poly_all p)" by auto
qed

text It now comes the preferred function to compute complex roots of an integer polynomial.
definition complex_roots_of_int_poly :: "int poly  complex list" where
  "complex_roots_of_int_poly p = (
    let ps = (if degree p  3 then factors_of_int_poly p else [p])
    in concat (map complex_roots_of_int_poly_all ps))"

definition complex_roots_of_rat_poly :: "rat poly  complex list" where
  "complex_roots_of_rat_poly p = complex_roots_of_int_poly (snd (rat_to_int_poly p))"
 
  
lemma complex_roots_of_int_poly:
  shows "p  0  set (complex_roots_of_int_poly p) = {x. ipoly p x = 0}" (is "_  ?l = ?r")
  and "distinct (complex_roots_of_int_poly p)" 
proof -
  have "(p  0  ?l = ?r)  (distinct (complex_roots_of_int_poly p))" 
  proof (cases "degree p  3")
    case False
    hence "complex_roots_of_int_poly p = complex_roots_of_int_poly_all p"
      unfolding complex_roots_of_int_poly_def Let_def by auto
    with complex_roots_of_int_poly_all[of p] False show ?thesis by auto
  next
    case True
    {
      fix q
      assume "q  set (factors_of_int_poly p)"
      from factors_of_int_poly(1)[OF refl this] irreducible_imp_square_free[of q] 
      have 0: "q  0" and sf: "square_free q" by auto
      from complex_roots_of_int_poly_all(1)[OF sf 0] complex_roots_of_int_poly_all(2)[OF sf]
      have "set (complex_roots_of_int_poly_all q) = {x. ipoly q x = 0}" 
        "distinct (complex_roots_of_int_poly_all q)" by auto
    } note all = this
    from True have 
      "?l = ( ((λ p. set (complex_roots_of_int_poly_all p)) ` set (factors_of_int_poly p)))"
      unfolding complex_roots_of_int_poly_def Let_def by auto    
    also have " = ( ((λ p. {x. ipoly p x = 0}) ` set (factors_of_int_poly p)))"
      using all by blast
    finally have l: "?l = ( ((λ p. {x. ipoly p x = 0}) ` set (factors_of_int_poly p)))" .    
    have lr: "p  0  ?l = ?r" using l factors_of_int_poly(2)[OF refl, of p] by auto
    show ?thesis 
    proof (rule conjI[OF lr])
      from True have id: "complex_roots_of_int_poly p = 
          concat (map complex_roots_of_int_poly_all (factors_of_int_poly p))" 
        unfolding complex_roots_of_int_poly_def Let_def by auto
      show "distinct (complex_roots_of_int_poly p)" unfolding id distinct_conv_nth
      proof (intro allI impI, goal_cases)
        case (1 i j)
        let ?fp = "factors_of_int_poly p" 
        let ?rr = "complex_roots_of_int_poly_all" 
        let ?cc = "concat (map ?rr (factors_of_int_poly p))" 
        from nth_concat_diff[OF 1, unfolded length_map]
        obtain j1 k1 j2 k2 where 
          *: "(j1,k1)  (j2,k2)"
          "j1 < length ?fp" "j2 < length ?fp" and
          "k1 < length (map ?rr ?fp ! j1)"
          "k2 < length (map ?rr ?fp ! j2)"
          "?cc ! i = map ?rr ?fp ! j1 ! k1" 
          "?cc ! j = map ?rr ?fp ! j2 ! k2" by blast
        hence **: "k1 < length (?rr (?fp ! j1))" 
          "k2 < length (?rr (?fp ! j2))" 
          "?cc ! i = ?rr (?fp ! j1) ! k1"
          "?cc ! j = ?rr (?fp ! j2) ! k2"
          by auto
        from * have mem: "?fp ! j1  set ?fp" "?fp ! j2  set ?fp" by auto
        show "?cc ! i  ?cc ! j"
        proof (cases "j1 = j2")
          case True
          with * have "k1  k2" by auto
          with all(2)[OF mem(2)] **(1-2) show ?thesis unfolding **(3-4) unfolding True
            distinct_conv_nth by auto
        next
          case False
          from degree p  3 have p: "p  0" by auto
          note fip = factors_of_int_poly(2-3)[OF refl this]       
          show ?thesis unfolding **(3-4)
          proof
            define x where "x = ?rr (?fp ! j2) ! k2" 
            assume id: "?rr (?fp ! j1) ! k1 = ?rr (?fp ! j2) ! k2" 
            from ** have x1: "x  set (?rr (?fp ! j1))" unfolding x_def id[symmetric] by auto
            from ** have x2: "x  set (?rr (?fp ! j2))" unfolding x_def by auto            
            from all(1)[OF mem(1)] x1 have x1: "ipoly (?fp ! j1) x = 0" by auto
            from all(1)[OF mem(2)] x2 have x2: "ipoly (?fp ! j2) x = 0" by auto
            from False factors_of_int_poly(4)[OF refl, of p] have neq: "?fp ! j1  ?fp ! j2" 
              using * unfolding distinct_conv_nth by auto
            have "poly (complex_of_int_poly p) x = 0" by (meson fip(1) mem(2) x2)
            from fip(2)[OF this] mem x1 x2 neq
            show False by blast
          qed
        qed
      qed
    qed
  qed
  thus "p  0  ?l = ?r" "distinct (complex_roots_of_int_poly p)" by auto
qed

lemma complex_roots_of_rat_poly: 
  "p  0  set (complex_roots_of_rat_poly p) = {x. rpoly p x = 0}" (is "_  ?l = ?r")
  "distinct (complex_roots_of_rat_poly p)" 
proof -
  obtain c q where cq: "rat_to_int_poly p = (c,q)" by force
  from rat_to_int_poly[OF this]
  have pq: "p = smult (inverse (of_int c)) (of_int_poly q)" 
    and c: "c  0" by auto
  show "distinct (complex_roots_of_rat_poly p)" unfolding complex_roots_of_rat_poly_def
    using complex_roots_of_int_poly(2) .
  assume p: "p  0" 
  with pq c have q: "q  0" by auto
  have id: "{x. rpoly p x = (0 :: complex)} = {x. ipoly q x = 0}"
    unfolding pq by (simp add: c of_rat_of_int_poly hom_distribs)
  show "?l = ?r" unfolding complex_roots_of_rat_poly_def cq snd_conv id
    complex_roots_of_int_poly(1)[OF q] ..
qed

lemma min_int_poly_complex_of_real[simp]: "min_int_poly (complex_of_real x) = min_int_poly x" 
proof (cases "algebraic x")
  case False
  hence "¬ algebraic (complex_of_real x)" unfolding algebraic_complex_iff by auto
  with False show ?thesis unfolding min_int_poly_def by auto
next
  case True
  from min_int_poly_represents[OF True]
  have "min_int_poly x represents x" by auto
  thus ?thesis
    by (intro min_int_poly_unique, auto simp: lead_coeff_min_int_poly_pos)
qed
  


text TODO: the implemention might be tuned, since the search process should be faster when
  using interval arithmetic to figure out the correct factor.
  (One might also implement the search via checking @{term "ipoly f x = 0"}, but because of complex-algebraic-number
   arithmetic, I think that search would be slower than the current one via "@{term "x  set (complex_roots_of_int_poly f)"}
definition min_int_poly_complex :: "complex  int poly" where
  "min_int_poly_complex x = (if algebraic x then if Im x = 0 then min_int_poly_real (Re x)
     else the (find (λ f. x  set (complex_roots_of_int_poly f)) (complex_poly (min_int_poly (Re x)) (min_int_poly (Im x))))
     else [:0,1:])" 
 
lemma min_int_poly_complex[code_unfold]: "min_int_poly = min_int_poly_complex" 
proof (standard)
  fix x
  define fs where "fs = complex_poly (min_int_poly (Re x)) (min_int_poly (Im x))" 
  let ?f = "min_int_poly_complex x" 
  show "min_int_poly x = ?f" 
  proof (cases "algebraic x")
    case False
    thus ?thesis unfolding min_int_poly_def min_int_poly_complex_def by auto
  next
    case True
    show ?thesis
    proof (cases "Im x = 0")
      case *: True
      have id: "?f = min_int_poly_real (Re x)" unfolding min_int_poly_complex_def * using True by auto
      show ?thesis unfolding id min_int_poly_real_code_unfold[symmetric] min_int_poly_complex_of_real[symmetric]
        using * by (intro arg_cong[of _ _ min_int_poly] complex_eqI, auto)
    next
      case False  
      from True[unfolded algebraic_complex_iff] have "algebraic (Re x)" "algebraic (Im x)" by auto
      from complex_poly[OF min_int_poly_represents[OF this(1)] min_int_poly_represents[OF this(2)]]
      have fs: " f  set fs. ipoly f x = 0" " f. f  set fs  poly_cond f" unfolding fs_def by auto
      let ?fs = "find (λ f. ipoly f x = 0) fs" 
      let ?fs' = "find (λ f. x  set (complex_roots_of_int_poly f)) fs" 
      have "?f = the ?fs'" unfolding min_int_poly_complex_def fs_def
        using True False by auto
      also have "?fs' = ?fs" 
        by (rule find_cong[OF refl], subst complex_roots_of_int_poly, insert fs, auto)
      finally have id: "?f = the ?fs" .
      from fs(1) have "?fs  None" unfolding find_None_iff by auto
      then obtain f where Some: "?fs = Some f" by auto
      from find_Some_D[OF this] fs(2)[of f]
      show ?thesis unfolding id Some
        by (intro min_int_poly_unique, auto)
    qed
  qed
qed
  
end