Coupled Similarity and Contrasimilarity, and How to Compute Them

Benjamin Bisping 🌐 and Luisa Montanari

August 18, 2023


We survey and extend characterizations of coupled similarity and contrasimilarity and prove properties relevant for algorithms computing their simulation preorders and equivalences.

Coupled similarity and contrasimilarity are two weak forms of bisimilarity for systems with internal behavior. They have outstanding applications in contexts where internal choices must transparently be distributed in time or space, for example, in process calculi encodings or in action refinements.

Our key contribution is to characterize the coupled simulation and contrasimulation preorders by reachability games. We also show how preexisting definitions coincide and that they can be reformulated using coupled delay simulations. We moreover verify a polynomial-time coinductive fixed-point algorithm computing the coupled simulation preorder. Through reduction proofs, we establish that deciding coupled similarity is at least as complex as computing weak similarity; and that contrasimilarity checking is at least as hard as trace inclusion checking.


BSD License


Related publications

  • Bisping, B., & Nestmann, U. (2019). Computing Coupled Similarity. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, 244–261.
  • Bisping, B., & Montanari, L. (2021). A Game Characterization for Contrasimilarity. Electronic Proceedings in Theoretical Computer Science, 339, 27–42.

Session Coupledsim_Contrasim